Tuesday, November 30, 2010
Pine Grove Soldier Awarded The Distinguished Service Cross For Bravery
T/Sgt Irvin R. Schwartz.
Sgt. Schwartz played an important part in halting a German advance into Belgium, near the town of Spa, in a battle lasting from dawn until late afternoon one day last November.
He was awarded the DSC for this action. Withdrawn from rest after the battle of Huertgen forest, the 26th Infantry regiment, 1st Infantry Division formed a line of resistance against a threatened German break through. The 21st Panzer Grenadier Division attacked on force using a fast moving powerful tank infantry team.
Sergeant Schwartz’ antitank platoon fought as riflemen until three German tanks burst through the dense brush, 10 yards distant; firing their antitank guns at point blank range Schwartz and his men destroyed the panzers and mopped up the infantry in a fierce costly struggle. Shortly thereafter three additional tanks were crippled before their guns were smashed. The battle went on from fox holes under the direction of Sergeant Schwartz. Schwartz’s men stalked the German T=tanks with bazooka and poured small arms fire into the German infantry ranks. Stubborn defense and aggressive action stopped the German thrust.
Twenty eight panzer 50 in the sector were destroyed, eight by Sgt. Schwartz’s platoon. Twenty two men remained alive in G Company, and only a handful in his platoon.
For his part in fighting and aggressive leadership Major General Andrus awarded Sergeant Schwartz the Distinguished Service Cross at Asch, Czech. He also wears the Bronze Star and Presidential Unit Citation.
Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army, for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree to be above those required for all other U.S. combat decorations but not meeting the criteria for the Medal of Honor. The Distinguished Service Cross is equivalent to the Navy Cross (Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) and the Air Force Cross (Air Force).
SCHWARTZ, IRVIN R.
The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Irvin R. Schwartz, Corporal, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy while serving with the 26th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, in action against enemy forces on 21 December 1944. Corporal Schwartz's intrepid actions, personal bravery and zealous devotion to duty exemplify the highest traditions of the military forces of the United States and reflect great credit upon himself, the 1st Infantry Division, and the United States Army.
Headquarters, First U.S. Army, General Orders No. 51 (1945)
Pottsville Marine Gets Navy Cross For Blasting Jap Machine Gun Nest On Iwo Jima
Sgt. Robert Sheipe
The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.
By Sgt Jack C. Smith
Marine Corps Combat Correspondent
Maui, T.H. For wiping out a Jap position with hand grenades on Iwo Jima, although twice wounded in the attempt. Sgt Robert Sheipe 20 Pottsville, Pa. received the Navy Cross.
Sgt. Sheipe a member of the Fourth Marine Division also fought at Roi-Namur, Saipan and Tinian.
“while voluntarily attempting to neutralize the fire of an enemy machine gun nest that was holding up the advance of his company,” his citation reads,”Sgt. Shipe was painfully wounded in the neck by an enemy sniper.
“Realizing that it was impossible to neutralize the position by counter machine gun fire he refused immediate evacuation and worked his way forward under intense sniper fire to a position where he was able to throw hand grenades into the emplacement.
“Although wounded although wounded again, Corporal Sheipe bravely continued to hurl hand grenades until the position. The citation stated.
Robert Sheipe’s Navy Cross
Awarded for actions during the World War II
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Corporal Robert G. Sheipe (MCSN: 457872), United States Marine Corps (Reserve), for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving as a Machine Gun Squad Leader of Company L, Third Battalion, Twenty-Fifth Marines, FOURTH Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 26 February 1945. Volunteering his services for a hazardous mission, Corporal Sheipe attempted to neutralize the fire of a hostile machine gun holding up the advance of his company. Realizing the impossibility of completing his mission by counter machine-gun fire after he had been wounded, he refused immediate evacuation to work his way forward under intense sniper fire to a position where he was able to throw hand grenades into the emplacement. Although wounded again, Corporal Sheipe bravely continued to hurl hand grenades until the position was destroyed and the occupants annihilated. His outstanding courage, determination and devotion to duty were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
General Orders: SPOT AWARD, Fleet Marine Force Pacific: Serial 41646 ( Signed January 26, 1948)
Action Date: 26-Feb-45
Service: Marine Corps Reserve
Company: Company L
Battalion: 3d Battalion
Regiment: 25th Marines
Division: 4th Marine Division
A few notes on the Battle of Iwo Jima, up to the 26th of February 1945 at which time Corporal Sheipe’s action took place. Sheipe belonged to the Co L, 3rd Battalion. 25th Marines Following info is taken from the “History of the Fourth Marines In WW2”…………………..
Thus by the night of D-day, the Division had all three of its rifle regiments (less some
Support Group elements), two battalions of artillery, and some heavy Shore Party equipment
ashore. Despite the withering enemy fire and extremely heavy casualties, the assault
units had driven ahead and established a line that Included the eastern edge of Airfield
No. 1 and was "of sufficient depth Inland from Blue Beaches to guarantee the successful
holding of the beachhead." Full contact with the Fifth Division had been established,
and adequate supplies were ashore for a continuation of the attack the next day.
The night of D-day was spent In trying to get ready for the next day's operations.
Some units had suffered terrible casualties:
BLT 3/25, for example, had lost 50% of Its men.
Accordingly, reserve companies and battalions were sent in to be attached to or to
relieve the most battered units. On the beach that night, in spite of all efforts, "no appreciable
progress was made in clearing the beaches of wrecked landing craft.** Enemy
harassing fire continued to fall all night long throughout the Division Zone.
As dawn came on February 20 (D plus 1), the men of the Fourth Division prepared for King hour:
At 0830 the assault began with RCT 23 on the left and
RCT 25 on the right. Through bitter enemy opposition, the 23rd Marines, reinforced with
tanks, fought its way across Airfield No. 1 to complete its capture by 1600. On the other flank, RCT 25 made little progress. Minefields prevented the use of tanks; terrain was very unfavorable; enemy resistance was fanatical, and the 25th's left flank was necessarily anchored to the adjoining unit of the 23rd Marines.
These first two days ashore left no doubt In anyone's mind that this would be the
Division's toughest battle. Losses already totaled 2,01l.***
Ashore, the sand proved a nightmare. Foxholes caved in, wheeled vehicles could not
move, and there was no cover from enemy fire. Japs deep In reinforced concrete piliboxes
laid down interlocking bands of fire that cut whole companies to ribbons. Camouflage
hid all the enemy installations. The high ground on every side was honeycombed with
layer after layer of Jap emplacements, blockhouses, dugouts, and observation posts. Their
observation was perfect; whenever the Marines made a move, the Japs watched every
step, and when the moment came, their mortars, rockets, machine guns, and artillery
long ago zeroed in—would smother the area In a murderous blanket of fire. The counterbattery fire and preparatory barrages of Marine artillery and naval gunfire were often Ineffective, for the Japs would merely retire to a lower level or inner cave and wait until the storm had passed. Then they would emerge and blast the advancing Marines.
In spite of all this, Fourth and Fifth Divisions moved ahead. After splitting the Island
On February 21 (D plus 2), after repulsing a night counter-attack by the Japs, the
Fourth Division attacked again. RCT 25 moved forward along the right flank by the East
The Division combat efficiency was already down to 68%. Although the day's advances averaged only100-250 yards, the enemy had been driven from the cliff heights and Quarry area on the Division right flank0 while the left flank was approaching Airfield No. 2. Furthermore,
reinforcements were becoming available.
The American flag was raised on top of Mt. Suribachi (by the 28th Marines) at 1037
on February 23 (D plus 4)
RCT 24 had regained its detached battalions, and it relieved the 25th Marines on the right flank. RCT 25 reverted to Division Reserve.
Thus It went, day after day. The Zaps would attempt small counter-attacks or Inifitratlons
each night. Every morning after an artillery preparation, the Division would
Jump off in the attack against an endless series of concealed plilboxes and mutually supporting
positions. The three rifle regiments and their battalions were shuffled In and out
of the line In an effort to equalize the burden of assault work. Casualties continued to be
Starting about February 26 (D plus 7), the Division began w.orking Its way into the
enemy's main defense line of prepared positions. For the next week it ground slowly forward,
suffering bloody losses, and engaged in the most savage type of close combat. The
Zap line was based on a series of strongpoints known as Hill 382, the Amphitheatre, Turkey
Knob, and the village of Minami.
RCT 25 on the right of the Division had been engaged In equally fierce fighting during
this same period. Its left flank elements (mainly BLT 1/25) had run into a cliff-line and
the Turkey Knob defenses. No amount of shelling, demolitions, flamethrowers, or riflemen
seemed to dent the enemy's fanatical resistance here. Time and again advances
would be made at the cost of very heavy casualties, only to find that the position reached
was untenable at the end of the day, and that a withdrawal was necessary. Every possible
solution was tried. A surprise attack was launched without any artillery preparation. Out flankings and envelopments were attempted. To silence one concrete blockhouse In a
commanding position on top of the cliff-line, a 75mm howitzer was packed up to the front
lines, assembled, and put into action. Nothing seemed to succeed. After days of bloody battering, advances finally were made so that the Zap pocket
at Turkey Knob was nearly isolated. RCT 25, however, was worn out, and on March 3 It
was relieved by the 23rd Marines.
The Division had broken the back of the Jap line, but at a terrible cost. As of March 3,
It had lost 6,591 men. In spite of receiving a draft of replacements, the Division's combat
efficiency had fallen to 50%..
Tuesday, November 9, 2010
Schuylkill Countian, from Ashland fought with the Rebel 1st Louisiana Artillery and was captured at Vicksburg. Pvt. Matthew Farne
Listed below is an interesting story of a Schuylkill Countian, from Ashland who fought with the Rebel 1st Louisiana Artillery and was captured at Vicksburg. Pvt. Matthew Farne.
September 5, 1863
An Irishman Experiences The South
Pottsville Miners Journal
Those who think Jeff Davis Confederacy is a pleasant place to sojourn in, and who vote in the north so as to encourage Jeff, to keep up his first class establishment, will oblige us by listening to the experience of an Irishman, formerly a resident of Schuylkill County. Matthew Farne who lived in Ashland, and went t the South several years since, and when the war broke out was forced into the rebel army, 1st Louisiana Artillery. He was taken prisoner at the surrender of Vicksburg and is now in Camp Morton, Indianapolis, Indiana. He is desirous of taking the oath of allegiance, and application has been made to Governor Curtin to have him released. To show the feelings of an Irishman who has tasted the beauties of Rebel Dom , we quote from a letter from him to his brother in Ashland: “You may rejoice that you have never for a moment borne the galling yoke of Secessionism, or the bondage of worse than Egyptian Slavery, that I with thousands of others have been obliged to carry for the last two years, and we thank the providence of God that we are on the road to the land of freedom, where alone a man can act as a man should act. I do tell you candidly, that I know not one Irishman when required to enter the Union service, but will do so with more energy than if they never knew the misguided cause they have been connected with...”
He has a poor opinion of the Secesh Officers:
“I tell you, and you may believe me, that a more cowardly set of men I never saw than the officers at the siege of Vicksburg, for though we stood the fire, famine, and fatigue for seven weeks, they skulked into their hiding places more than common negroes. Such is the chivalry of the South so much heralded. But when they fight a few more battles like Vicksburg the demoralization of their own army will cripple and crush them.”
Editors Note: The prison camp that Farne was held in:
Camp Morton, an Indianapolis civil war training camp and later a federal prison for captured confederate soldiers, was located in the area now bounded by Talbott Avenue to the west, Central Avenue to the east, Twenty-Second Street to the north, and Nineteenth Street to the south. Samuel Henderson, the first mayor of Indianapolis, originally owned this thirty-six acre tract, which contained scattered hardwood trees of mostly black walnut and oak and at least four good springs. This area became known as Henderson’s or Otis’ Grove. A creek flowed through this property upon which, after it was dredged in 1837, become known as State Ditch. State Ditch was later nicknamed the “Potomac” by the prisoners of Camp Morton. State Ditch is no longer visible as it was made into an underground drain some years after the war.
Farnes Regiment: 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery
Organized 5 Feb 1861 as part of the Louisiana State Army, the 1st Heavy Artillery transferred to Confederate service 13 Mar 1861, with 744 men. Regimental headquarters remained at the New Orleans Barracks while the various companies occupied the forts of the New Orleans defenses.
The Regiment marched out after the surrender of Vicksburg and went into a camp for paroled prisoners. After being exchanged, the Regiment went into service at Mobile, arriving in January of 1864.
The Regiment continued to garrison batteries in the Mobile area until 11 Apr 1865, when they were dismantled and the men evacuated as part of the evacuation of Mobile. When Lieutenant General Richard Taylor's Army surrendered on 8 May 1865, the 1st Heavy Artillery was camped at Cuba Station, Alabama; and the men receivd their paroles as part of Taylor's
Monday, November 1, 2010
VIET CONG RUTHLESS ENEMY COUNTY SERVICEMAN LEARNS
From the Pottsville Republican
NOVEMBER 17, 1965 Sp4 John Ferenchick, Minersville, Pa.
Minersville- “I hope and pray the coal region people are different and I think they are.”, Writes a borough serviceman from Viet Nam after reading of the draft card burnings and other such protests by U.S. residents to the war against communism.
Sp4 John Ferenchick, who has been in Viet Nam four months, wonders if these demonstrators realize that Americans are dying so that those who attempt to undermine them may continue to be free.
“What kind of people are they?” he asks.
The people of South Viet Nam know what kind of ruthless enemy the Americans are helping them to fight, Ferenchick notes. To illustrate, he tells of one 12 year old boy he knows.
The lad, one of the youngest regulars in the South Viet army, joined the service because”the Viet Cong kept coming to my village and killed many of my people for no reason at all. They also kept me from going to school and working. I don’t like that, so I decided to become a soldier.
He and his father are members of the same heavy weapons platoon. His mother and a younger brother lived in a Montagnard tribal village outside the camp at Plei Me, but their fate is unknown since the communists attacked the camp in a recent heavy attack.
Ferenchick is a member of the 504th Military Police unit located three miles from Pleiku along route 19 in the Red infested Central highlands north of Saigon.
“Our main functions, “ he writes , “Are to escort convoys on route 19, to check security on incoming vehicles and to help the perimeter defenses of Pleiku, which is under surveillance 24 hours a day. Our part is small but ectremly important both for civilians and our own forces.””The point I want to get across to these people who are demonstrating,” he concludes, “is they should take one look at themselves and ask, What kind of a person am I.”
17 DAYS IN THE VIETNAM WAR
FROM THE FRONT PAGES OF THE POTTSVILLE REPUBLICANMinersville Soldier writes home about the Vietnam War 1965
While doing research for a musical program on the songs of the soldier 1756-1975, that I plan to do around Veterans Day, I came across one of the best songs I’ve heard, entitled “The 8th Of November”, by recording artists “Big and Rich”. It was recorded in 2006. It deals with the story of one man from the 173rd Airborne who was wounded in a battle north of Bien Hoa, Vietnam on November 8th, 1965.
Big and Rich talk about their Song, “The 8th of November”
Arts & Entertainment | Music
By RONNA RUBIN
Country duo Big & Rich (Kenny Alphin and John Rich) have never neatly fit into any one category or classification. Larger than life, the two came on the scene with the colorful “Save A Horse, Ride A Cowboy,” and have never looked back.
Their latest single, “The 8th of November,” is based on a story so significant that it could not be told in a standard 3-1/2-minute song and video. The track from their “Comin’ To Your City” album has been made into an hour-long documentary that will debut on GAC on Saturday, July 1, at 9 p.m. EDT.
The inspiration for “The 8th of November” is Niles Harris, a Vietnam veteran and Purple Heart recipient who survived a battle that took place on Hill 65 in War Zone D on Nov. 8, 1965. Forty-eight of Harris’ comrades in the Army’s 173rd Airborne were killed and hundreds wounded in a battle that found them outnumbered 30 to 1.
In 1965, Alphin was a 1-year-old and Rich was not yet born, but a chance meeting with Harris in a Deadwood, S.D., bar created what has become a lasting friendship. In 2002 _ before they had a record deal _ Alphin and Rich played at a saloon in Deadwood where Harris tended bar.
Moved by Harris’ tale of life as a 19-year-old Army private shot down in jungle fire, the duo wrote “The 8th of November.”
“The difference between writing this song and writing other songs is that normally Kenny and I would sit right down, have a couple of beers and write a song,” Rich says in the documentary.
Big Kenny and Rich with Niles Harris
“But in this case, it was so important to us that we just wanted to make sure it was right,” Alphin adds. “It’s the pinnacle of all we’ve written so far.”
In 2005, the duo asked Harris if he would be interested in revisiting Vietnam for the first time since his last tour. With a documentary crew of Americans and Vietnamese in tow, the group traveled 34 hours to the exact site of the Hill 65 battle. The boots Harris was wearing the day of the battle were buried at that site in a crater made by a B-52 bomb.
“Niles Harris’ story sheds light on the realities of one individual in the center of a war,” the duo said about the inspiration for their documentary. “There are thousands more out there just like his and we wish to honor all of our military personnel who have represented our country with courage and bravery.”
Check out this video on you tube
As a sixteen year old Pottsville High School student I remember well the headlines of the Pottsville Republican in 1965. I was always interested in anything associated with the U.S. military and by early 1965 the Vietnam War was escalating into a major full scale war. Unfortunetly the war would last another 10 years. Five years after reading the headlines in the Republican I also would serve a tour of duty in Vietnam, starting on November 1, 1970.
President Lyndon Johnson sent a battalion of U.S. Marines to Vietnam, in April, they landed at Da Nang ;In May, the President submitted an emergency appropriation request to Congress to fund the U.S. effort in Vietnam; in June, LBJ gave General William Westmoreland the authority to commit American troops to ground combat operations in Vietnam. By the end of the Kennedy administration 16,000 troops had been committed to Vietnam By the end of 1965 184,000 American troops were in Vietnam.
This article will take a look at 17 days of headlines from the Vietnam War as reported by the Pottsville Republican centered on the 8th of November battle written about in the song.
It is hard to find any stories from the local men and women who served in the war. Seeing that this war was very unpopular not much was reported, especially during the early years.
92 VIET CONG SLAIN IN PLEI ME MOPUP
November 2, 1965 WOUNDED SERGEANT WANTS TO GO BACK
NOVEMBER 2, 1965
VIET WAR MAY LAST ANOTHER TEN YEARS..U.S. LEADERS MAP STRAEGY FOR VICTORY
NOVEMBER 4, 1965
GI’S AMBUSH CONG
NOVEMBER 4, 1965
EVEN THE CAUTIOUS CAN DIE-AND DO IN VIETNAM
NOVEMBER 4, 1965
HANOI TROOPS IN SOUTH VIET PUT AT 7,500
NOVEMBER 5, 1965
JETS RIP MISSLE SITES NEAR HANOI
NOVEMBER 6, 1965
VIET CONG KIDNAPS FOUR U.S. AIRMEN
NOVEMBER, 6, 1965
PENTAGON CLAIMS 133 PLANES LOST
NOVEMBER 6, 1965
FIVE PLANES LOST MISSLE SITE RAID
NOVEMBER 8, 1965
AGGRESSIVE YANKS OVERCOME 2-1 ODDS
NOVEMBER 8, 1965
TAYLOR WARNS OF LONG WAR
NPVMEBER 8, 1965
HANOI CAN BE WIPED OUT IN MINUTES IF WORD COMES FOR NUCLEAR STRIKE
NOVEMBER 8, 1965 THE STORY WRITTEN BY THE AP ABOUT THE SONG
8TH OF NOVEMBER
FIERCE JUNGLE BATTLE…391 VIET CONG KILLED
NOVEMBER 9, 1965
Saigon, South Vietnam, (AP) U.S. paratroopers fighting in the thick jungle of D zone north of Saigon killed 391 Communists troops, a U.S. Spokesman reported today.
The spokesman said American casualties in the day long battle Monday were moderate but reliable sources said the 173rd Airborne Brigade had suffered its heaviest casualties since it came to Viet Nam.
The bulk of the Communist losses were attributed to air attacks, heavy artillery and automatic weapons fire.
Battle Starts Quick
The battle occurred about 30 miles northeast of Saigon when a U.S. company encountered an estimated 500 men, of the enemy, Within the hour a battalion of paratroopers was fighting.
The spokesman said in one area an artillery barrage killed 60 Viet Cong. The Communists stripped all the bodies apparently to prevent identification.
Unofficial sources said fighting continued during the night. U.S. Air Force B52’s from Guam raided a dense jungle area of D Zone 10 miles to the west, but a spokesman said the raid was not directly related to the paratroopers operation.
Ground action was reported light in other areas. A Viet Cong company attacked a government outpost in the Mekong Delta Monday night but was reported beaten off. The Communists left arms, and bodies behind.
U.S. Air Force and navy planes flew 36 missions over South Vietnam and North Viet Nam, attacking roads, bridges and rail yards and truck parks.
South Vietnamese Gov’t troops reported they killed 25 Viet Cong in an action 80 miles south of Saigon.
Communist ground fire brought down a U.S. Army helicopter south of Saigon Monday, and one crew man was killed. The helicopter was supporting a ranger operation. Rescue helicopters picked up the other three crewmen.
Troops of the U.S. Army’s 101st “Screaming Eagles” Brigade reported seven VC killed, one captured and 106 suspects detained in a mop up operation west of Qui Nhon, in Central Vietnam.
The 173rd Airborne Brigade’s 1st battalion had been scouting an area of D zone for four days before it made its first contact.
The Communists opened up with heavy fire from entrenched positions as a company of paratroopers was searching an abandoned village.
The battalion’s two other flank companied moved in on the flanks in an unsuccessful attempt to overrun the communist position.
The three U.S. companies remained heavily engaged as heavy U.S. air and artillery fire came raining in on the enemy.
The Viet Cong held fast for several hours, and then gradually broke off contact.
An Australian battalion got into a firefight in the same general area late Monday afternoon and reportedly suffered light casualties. Darkness made an estimate of Viet Cong losses impossible.
The Australians said they had killed six Viet Cong earlier in the operation and captured five.
Brig. General Ellis Williamson commander of the 173rd said the enemy troops engaged Monday were not wearing the black pajamas usually worn by the Viet Cong but were dressed in gray fatigue uniforms and had steel helmets and rucksacks.
“The enemy made every effort to strip all of the bodies of everything, including identification, and all usable equipment,” Williamson said, “There is no question but this was a main force outfit.”
70 YANKS DIE IN ONE WEEK OF VIET WAR
NOVEMBER 10, 1965
CONG AMBUSH BACKFIRES
NOVEMBER 11, 1965
100 RED TROOPS DIE IN BATTLE WITH U.S. 1ST INFANTRY DIVISION
NOVEMBER 12, 1965
LBJ OK’S MORE TROOPS FOR VIET
NOVEMBER 12, 1965
VIET CONG CASUALTIES MOUNT NIGHT ATTACK FOILED
NOVEMBER 13, 1965
B52 BOMBERS CLEAR PATH FOR U.S. GROUND FORCES
NOVEMBER 15, 1965
U.S. TO SEND MORE TROOPS…PUT PRESSURE ON ENEMY
NOVEMBER 15, 1965
URGE BOMBING VITAL NORTH VIET HARBOR
NOVEMBER 15, 1965
U.S. TROOPS HOLD GROUND IN BIGGEST BATTLE OF WAR
NOVEMBER 16, 1965
FOUR U.S. PLANES LOST IN NORTH VIET BOMBING
NOVEMBER 17, 1965
MUST RECOVER VILLAGES AS FIRST STEP
NOVEMBER, 17, 1965
WHAT 17 DAYS OF REPORTING THE VIET NAM WAR WAS LIKE IN NOVEMBER OF 1965..